Lipids

Lipids

  • they are fat organic substances, insoluble in water, soluble in organic substances containing Hydrocarbon group
  • 1 g produces 9 calories
  • should provide 25-30% of daily calories
  • function of provider of energy and reserves
  • they are present in the cell membrane
  • accelerates metabolism as coenzymes
  • insulates heat and restore tissues
  • contributes to nervous system composition
  • synthesizes hormones
  • provides essential fatty acids
  • helps in protein synthesis
  • circulates the vitamins A, D, E and ensures their absorption in the digestive tract
  • excess can cause obesity, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis
  • their absence leads to halted growth, changes the skin, the mucous membranes, the hair and nails
  • assimilation is disturbed when they are consumed together with bad carbohydrates
  • once consumed fats are digested and converted into fatty acids and triglycerides

fatty acids:

  • divides the fat in
      SATURATED

      • those from animal products, red meat, chicken, eggs, milk and derivatives
      • is deposited in arteries, contains LDL bad cholesterol

      polyunsaturated

      • in fish, vegetable oils (sunflower, corn)
      • provides linoleic and linolenic acids

      Monounsaturated

      • in vegetable oils (olive, peanut)
      • the omega 3 and 6 of poly and monounsaturated fats maintain healthy joints, hair, skin, good hormonal levels
  • cholesterol
    • is a natural component of animal tissue
    • enters in the composition of hormones
  • triglycerides
    • glycerin
      • is an alcohol with properties similar to carbohydrates and fats
    • phospholipids
      • important for cells integrity
      • carry other fats and cholesterol
      • best known of them is lecithin
    • sterols
        fat

      • role in the functioning of the hormonal system
      • best known as cholesterol, vitamin D
  • good fats
    • vegetable oils, meat, fish, peanut butter
    • are liquid at room temperature
    • are poly and monounsaturated fats
    • prevent sudden increases in the levels of insulin
  • omega 3
    • stimulates fat burning
    • preserve muscle mass
    • protects joints
    • sources: fish, flax oil, nuts
  • omega 6
    • maintains healthy joints, hair
    • controls hormone levels
    • in vegetable oil
  • bad fats
    • animals: pork, beef, butter, milk, cooked meat, coconut oil, palm
    • they are solid at room temperature
    • are saturated fat
    • contributes to weight gain