• They are micro and macro elements essential for growth, development and health maintenance
  • They are enzyme cofactors involved in growth, development, power, healing
  • They are required in bone formation, blood, blood plasma, lymph, cytoplasm
  • Used in the normal functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, excretory system
  • Macrominerals: calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur
  • Microminerals: bromine, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, silicon, zinc
  • trace elements: arsenic, boron, nickel, tin, tungsten, vanadium



    • regulates the cell membrane permeability, neuromuscular excitability, heart rate, blood coagulability, blood lipid and cholesterol levels
    • together with phosphorus builds the bone system and is assimilated only in relation to it
    • the level of calcium serum is regulated by two hormones: tirocalcitomina, which decreases the parathyroid hormone level, which controls the distribution of caloric blood bones and blood.
    • opposed by excess phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, caffeine
    • lack of it causes rickets, osteoporosis, osteomalacia
    • daily dosage; 1000mg/day
    • sources: milk, mineral water, fish, green leafy vegetables, eggs, figs, almonds, walnuts


    • acts as a cofactor for 90 enzymes involved in energy released from food and has an utilization in body processes, is essential for neurochemical transmission, muscle function, cellular division, bones, teeth, prevents high blood pressure and muscle fatigue
    • lack of it causes cell death, anxiety, fatigue, nausea, cramps
    • opposed by diabetes, kidney disease, hormonal disorders, diuretics, excess alcohol
    • daily dosage: 2g/day
    • sources: beets, apricots, beans, corn, broccoli, nuts, almonds, peanuts, plums, bananas


    • essential for the formation of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA, bones, teeth, some special fats, cell energy metabolism, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
    • stimulates the nerve cell function, muscle, nerves, heart
    • excess phosphorus in fast foods fast interferes with the absorption of iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium, preventing absorption in the intestine
    • excess leads to loss of appetite, weakness, bone pain, osteoporosis, diarrhea, fractures
    • -daily dose 800 mg / day
    • sources: processed meats, soft drinks, energy, milk, eggs, fish, nuts, vegetables


    • essential for the functioning of the nervous system, muscular, cardiovascular, acting in tandem with sodium (of which has opposite effects), regulates the neuromuscular excitability and muscle contraction, is necessary for heart contractions preventing arrhythmia, is necessary for carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion, protein synthesis , maintains the internal environment to slightly alkaline values (pH = 7, 36) preventing the occurrence of cancers and metabolic acidosis
    • opposed by coffee, alcohol, sugar, diuretics, heart diseases and liver diseases, kidney, adrenal glands, diabetes, cancer
    • requires magnesium to be assimilated
    • excess causes: diarrhea, vomiting, confusion, irritability
    • lack of it causes fatigue, weakness, water retention, constipation, hypotension,
    • daily dosage: 5-3 g / day
    • sources: dried mushrooms, paprika, dried apricots, potatoes, cocoa, beans, wheat bran, pistachio, figs, prunes, peas, lentils, nuts, almonds


    • provides osmotic homeostasis with potassium, is essential for transmembrane transport of nutrients, supports nerve function, muscle contraction, maintaining the balance of the acid-base equilibrium, is involved in the production of adrenaline
    • excess leads (in kitchen salt) to high blood pressure, water retention, migraines
    • lack of it causes nausea, muscle cramps, heart attacks
    • -daily dosage: 0, 5g/day


  • is a component of blood plasma and tissue fluids
      • essential in the formation of hydrochloric acid from the stomach, is necessary for the functioning of muscles, nerves, participates in the transport of CO2 in the blood, in the form of kitchen salt helps to maintain the acid-base balance and fluid balance
      • daily dosage: 100mg/day
      • sources: table salt, drinking water


  • needed in the biosynthesis of amino acids
  • sources: animal protein and vegetable, meat, dairy, legumes, nuts



  • is absorbed in the intestine and stored in the liver, spleen, bone
  • immune system, skeletal muscles, metabolism and storage of sugars, and fat, prevents insulin resistance and diabetes
  • inhibited absorption of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium, titanium
  • deficit – causes weakness, confusion, irritability, depression
  • -daily dosage: 50-200 micrograms / day


  • located in the bones and muscles
    • stimulates the production of glycoprotein hormones (erythropoietin), the lack of which the body does not receives enough oxygen
    • deficit – causes failure of vitamin B12 biosynthesis, muscle weakness, anemia
    • daily dosage: 20-30mg/day
    • sources: meat, milk, eggs, figs


  • is in the blood plasma and red cells
  • is antagonistic to zinc, forming protein compounds
  • opposed by: dietary fiber, protein, cadmium, iron, zinc, cobalt
  • deficit causes: iron oxidation, production of free radicals, arthritis, cancer.
  • deficiency symptoms: hair loss, diarrhea, anemia, bone diseases
  • -daily dosage 2-5 mg / day
  • sources: oysters, fish, cocoa, liver, kidney, grapes, nuts, peas, yeast


  • located in the thyroid gland, linked to the amino acid tyrosine,
  • is used in the synthesis of thyroid hormones T4 and T3 (which increases metabolic rate, protein metabolism, carbohydrates, lipid catabolism, stimulates tonus, maintains normal heart rhythm)
  • deficit: the metabolic rate decreases, fatigue, weight gain, goiter endemic
  • -daily dosage 100-200 micrograms / day
  • sources, seaweed, meat, fruits


  • forms
    • hemic iron availability: in meat, 5-10%
    • nonhemic iron availability: in plants 2%
    • anorganic iron
    • essential in cellular energy production, metabolism of vitamins B
    • opposed by caffeine, calcium, manganese
    • deficit causes anemia (iron deficiency, vitamin B9, B12)
    • -daily dosage: 18 mg / day
    • people over 40 years of age should avoid iron intake from food: bread, pastry and sweets
  • sources: organs, shellfish, eggs, meat, cumin, oregano, basil, pepper, mushrooms, bread, corn flakes, bay leaves, rosemary, muesli


  • antioxidant, involved in muscle development, growth control, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, fertility
  • iron antagonist, is more easily assimilated if iron is deficient
  • deficit – causes epilepsy, diabetes
  • daily dosage: 2,5 – 3,8mg/day
  • recommended for cancer


  • strengthens the immune system by activating T lymphocytes, blood clotting role, important in dismantling the toxic effects of heavy metals: lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, protects cells from free radical effect
  • deficit causes: decreases the good HDL cholesterol, increases the risk of myocardial infarct and stroke
  • -daily dosage: 50-200 micrograms / day
  • sources, Brazil nuts, seafood


  • stimulates osteoblast cells that build bones, forming cartilage, tendons and collagen protein, prevents ateriosclerosys
  • daily dosage: 20-30mg/day
  • sources: water, milk, vegetables


  • interacts with the metabolism of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D
  • sources: plums, apples, avocados, wine, soy, honey, tomatoes, bananas


  • is antagonistic to copper
  • is part of the enzyme that allows release of insulin by the pancreas
  • immune system, fights acne, antiviral effect, inhibiting the growth of dental plaque
  • action is potentiated by vitamin A, phosphorus, copper and calcium.
  • deficit causes: vitamin A deficiency, slow physical development, slow mental development, affects fertility
  • daily dosage: 15mg/day
  • sources: liver, red meat, nuts, eggs, milk, oysters, cheese, wheat