Proteins

Proteins

  • they are macromolecular organic substances composed of chains of amino acids
  • 1 gram produces 4 calories
  • we encounter them in the muscle tissue, bones, connective tissue, they compose the enzymes, antibodies, cell, protein hormones
  • they are absorbed under the form of amino acids directly crossing into the blood cells, in order to produce the required amount of specific proteins, and the excess is converted into fat or oxidized
  • in the absence of carbohydrates in the blood (after efforts of more than 2 hours), they are decomposed and burned as an energy source
  • only metabolized by carbohydrates and fat
  • metabolism is made by removal of urea, requiring supplementation of the drinking water quantity
  • they are absorbed in the small intestine
  • the body synthesizes up to 97% of protein consumed in a meal, at each 3 hours the consumption of new proteins is required
  • their lack determines:
    • growth and nutritional disorders
    • decreased resistance to infections
    • anemia
    • appearance of edema
    • decreased exercise capacity
  • their excess determine:
    • appearance of rotting faeces
    • occurrence of disease
    • poisoning
  • complete proteins: brings all the 8 amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body, and are of animal or soy origin (but deficient in methionine)
  • sources:
      casein

      • slow digestion,
      • contained cheese
      • good to eat before bedtime or between meals
    • whey
      • digestible quick
      • antioxidant
      • stimulates immunity
      • good to eat after workouts, or in the morning
    • fish
      • slow digestion
      • inflammatory effect
      • good to be consumed at dinner
    • meat
      • slow digestion
      • contains no fat protein
      • the Beef contains iron, more readily absorbed than plants
      • good to be consumed at lunch
    • eggs
      • slow digestion
      • whites contain protein and water
      • yolk contains protein, cholesterol, lecithin, minerals, vitamins
      • best to be consumed at morning meals
    • soy
      • digestible quick
      • improves thyroid gland activity
      • inhibit tumor tissues
      • reduces bad LDL cholesterol
      • increases the secretion of testosterone
      • antioxidant
      • does not contains sufficient methionine
      • good to eat between meals
  • in the morning morning upon awakening and 30 minutes before exercise it is good to eat proteins with rapid assimilation